Editorial Reviews. Book Description. Wireless sensor networks promise an unprecedented fine-grained interface between the virtual and physical worlds. Wireless sensor networks promise an unprecedented fine-grained interface between the virtual and physical worlds. They are one of the most. Wireless sensor networks promise an unprecedented fine-grained interface Networking Wireless. Sensors. Bhaskar Krishnamachari. Sleep-oriented MAC.
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Networking Wireless Sensors - Ebook written by Bhaskar Krishnamachari. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Wireless sensor networks are currently being employed in a variety of applications ranging from medical to military, and from home to Bhaskar Krishnamachari. 2 book results for Krishnamachari, Bhaskar. Save this An organized survey of the field of wireless sensor networks and their applications. Available.
Radio communication is often the most power- intensive operation in a WSN device, and hence the radio must incorporate energy-efficient sleep and wake-up modes.
Sensors: Due to bandwidth and power constraints, WSN devices primarily support only low-data-rate sensing. Many applications call for multi-modal sensing, so each device may have several sensors on board. The specific 4 Introduction sensors used are highly dependent on the application; for example, they may include temperature sensors, light sensors, humidity sensors, pressure sensors, accelerometers, magnetometers, chemical sensors, acoustic sensors, or even low-resolution imagers.
Geopositioning system: In many WSN applications, it is important for all sensor measurements to be location stamped. The simplest way to obtain positioning is to pre-configure sensor locations at deployment, but this may only be feasible in limited deployments. Particularly for outdoor operations, when the network is deployed in an ad hoc manner, such information is most easily obtained via satellite-based GPS.
However, even in such applications, only a fraction of the nodes may be equipped with GPS capability, due to environmental and economic constraints.
In this case, other nodes must obtain their locations indirectly through network localization algorithms. Power source: For flexible deployment the WSN device is likely to be battery powered e.
While some of the nodes may be wired to a continuous power source in some applications, and energy harvesting techniques may provide a degree of energy renewal in some cases, the finite battery energy is likely to be the most critical resource bottleneck in most WSN applications.
Depending on the application, WSN devices can be networked together in a number of ways. In basic data-gathering applications, for instance, there is a node referred to as the sink to which all data from source sensor nodes are directed. The simplest logical topology for communication of gathered data is a single-hop star topology, where all nodes send their data directly to the sink.
In networks with lower transmit power settings or where nodes are deployed over a large area, a multi-hop tree structure may be used for data-gathering.
In this case, some nodes may act both as sources themselves, as well as routers for other sources. One interesting characteristic of wireless sensor networks is that they often allow for the possibility of intelligent in-network processing.
Intermediate nodes along the path do not act merely as packet forwarders, but may also examine and process the content of the packets going through them. This is often done for the purpose of data compression or for signal processing to improve the quality of the collected information.
We describe a few Applications of wireless sensor networks 5 applications from different domains briefly to give a sense of the wide-ranging scope of this field: 1. Ecological habitat monitoring: Scientific studies of ecological habitats ani- mals, plants, micro-organisms are traditionally conducted through hands-on field activities by the investigators.
One serious concern in these studies is what is sometimes referred to as the observer effect the very pres- ence and potentially intrusive activities of the field investigators may affect the behavior of the organisms in the monitored habitat and thus bias the observed results.
Unattended wireless sensor networks promise a cleaner, remote-observer approach to habitat monitoring. Further, sensor networks, due to their potentially large scale and high spatio-temporal density, can provide experimental data of an unprecedented richness.
One of the earliest experimental deployments of wireless sensor networks was for habitat monitoring, on Great Duck Island, Maine .
A team of researchers from the Intel Research Lab at Berkeley, University of California at Berkeley, and the College of the Atlantic in Bar Harbor deployed wireless sensor nodes in and around burrows of Leachs storm petrel, a bird which forms a large colony on that island during the breeding season. The sensor- network-transmitted data were made available over the web, via a base station on the island connected to a satellite communication link.
Military surveillance and target tracking: As with many other information technologies, wireless sensor networks originated primarily in military-related research. Unattended sensor networks are envisioned as the key ingredient in moving towards network-centric warfare systems. They can be rapidly deployed for surveillance and used to provide battlefield intelligence regarding the location, numbers, movement, and identity of troops and vehicles, and for detection of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons.
Indeed, many of the leading US researchers and entrepreneurs in the area of wireless sensor networks today have been and are being funded by these DARPA programs.
Structural and seismic monitoring: Another class of applications for sensor networks pertains to monitoring the condition of civil structures . The structures could be buildings, bridges, and roads; even aircraft. Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications. Front Matter Pages i-xx. Aravind Iyer, Sunil S.
Kulkarni, Vivek Mhatre, Catherine P. Pages Topology Control for Wireless Sensor Networks. Boundary Detection for Sensor Networks. Wakeup Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networks. China; E-Mail: nc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Severe natural conditions and complex terrain make it difficult to apply precise localization in underground mines.
In this paper, an anchor-free localization method for mobile targets is proposed based on non-metric multi-dimensional scaling Multi-dimensional Scaling: MDS and rank sequence. Firstly, a coal mine wireless sensor network is constructed in underground mines based on the ZigBee technology. Finally, an improved sequence-based localization algorithm is presented to complete precise localization for mobile targets.
The proposed method is tested through simulations with nodes, outdoor experiments with 15 ZigBee physical nodes, and the experiments in the mine gas explosion laboratory with 12 ZigBee nodes. Experimental results show that our method has better localization accuracy and is more robust in underground mines. Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, Multi-dimensional scaling, Received signal strength, Rank sequence 1.
Introduction Over the past decade, there has been a surge of accidents in coal mines all over the world. Realization of environment monitoring and miner localization in underground mines plays an important role in mining safety. Wireless sensor networks Wireless Sensor Networks: WSN have attracted more and more research interest in coal mine applications for their advantages of self-organization, low cost and high reliability.